Europeans first arrived in 1498, when Vasco da Gama discovered a new marine route around the Cape of Good Hope. Following it, many trading companies entered India and established trading centres. In India, the Portuguese were the first to arrive. After that came Dutch, English, Danish, and French. The British East India Company was created before the Dutch East India Company. Arab traders controlled the majority of Asia’s trade, while Italian traders controlled geocentric and European trade. Mainly the trading companies visit ‘Eastern Countries’ for their Garam Masala, as it plays a vital role for them. Turkey refused to allow European merchants to trade with eastern countries through their empire.
The Portuguese and Spaniards kicked off a period of geographical exploration. Bartholomew Dias, a Portuguese, founded Utmasha Antripe in 1487 AD. Columbus, a Spaniard, discovered America in 1494 AD while looking for a means to reach India. Vasco Da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, reached India in 1498 AD by circumnavigating Utmasha Antripe.
Among the Europeans, the first ones who came to India were the Portuguese. On the famous port of Calicut, Vasco Da Gama arrived at a spot called ‘Kappakadabu’ on May 17, 1498, where Abdul Manned helped him. The Hindu King of Calicut, who bore the hereditary title of ‘Zamorin,’ greeted him kindly and instructed him to transport spices and herbs, among other things. Even after deducting the journey expenses from this shipment, Vasco da Gama collected 60 times the profit.
In 1500 AD, the 2nd Portuguese, who visited India at Calicut was Pedro Alvarez Cabral. In 1501 AD, Vasco da Gama made his second trip to India. In 1503, they opened their first plant in Cochin and erected a second factory at Connor in 1505 and “Francisco De Almeida” was appointed as the first Portuguese viceroy in India in the same year, 1505 AD.
Francisco De Almeida (1505-09) AD:
The first Portuguese ruler of India was Francisco De Almeida (1505-09). Rather than security, he was appointed to establish control over the Indian Ocean trade. To trade, he adopted the ‘Blue Water Policy.’
Alphonso de Albuquerque (1509-15) AD:
After Francisco de Almeida, Alphonso de Albuquerque (1509-15) became governor. Albuquerque was credited for establishing and expanding Portuguese power in India. His dominion was centred in Cochin. In 1510, Albuquerque captured Goa from Adilshahi Sultan of Bijapur. As a result, India gained a regional Portuguese state. Hormuz which was located at the mouth of the Persian Gulf was occupied by him in 1515 AD.
Nino De Cunha (1529-38) AD:
After Albuquerque, he was the most powerful Portuguese governor. In 1530 AD, he moved the government office from Cochin to Goa, and later he designated Goa as the official capital of the Portuguese state in India. He captured the Basin and Diu in 1534 and 1535, respectively. In 1559, Daman became a Portuguese colony. Only Goa, Daman, and Diu remained under Portuguese control until 1961 AD.
a. They introduce cannonon ship.
b. They introduce european type of warfare.
c. They introduce Printing press.
d. They also introduced crops like Tobacco, Ladies finger, Sapota (chikoo).
e. Red chillies, Potato, Cashew, Cabbage and pine apple also introduced by Portuguese.
They call the Netherlands or the Hollands home. After the Portuguese, the Dutch arrived in India. “Cornelius Houtman” led the first expedition to the eastern world in 1595-96. The “United East India Company of the Netherlands” was founded in 1602 when numerous Dutch firms merged. The original name of this company was (Veerenigde 00st indische Compagnic). After failing in Surat and Malabar, Dutch Naval Nayak Vader Hague constructed the first factory in Masulipatnam in 1605 AD.
At Pettopoli, a second factory was built (nizampatnam). In 1610, the Dutch agreed with the monarch of Chandragiri to build a new factory and make Pulicat their headquarters. The Dutch mint their Pagoda coin here. In 1627 AD, the first Dutch factory in Bengal was constructed in Pipli. The Dutch erected their Kothi at Chinsura near Hoogly in 1653 AD. “Gustavas Fort” is their fort in Chinsura. Aurangzeb granted the Dutch the right to trade in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa in 1664 AD. The Dutch were beaten by the British in the Battle of Bedara (Bengal) in 1759 AD. This defeat effectively ended their rule in India.